Theoretical Work – Radical Philosophy Mon, 19 Sep 2022 23:34:11 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Theoretical Work – Radical Philosophy 32 32 Ethereum Merge Complete: Is “The Flippening” Next? Mon, 19 Sep 2022 21:25:00 +0000

Phira Phonruewiangphing

After the core development team behind Ethereum (ETH-USD) gave a window in mid-September for when the long-awaited switch from proof-of-work to proof-of-stake, “The Merge” has become the most big story of cryptography. ETH has had a massive bounce since the June 18 crypto low, rising to more than 100% by mid-August.

BTC vs. ETH performance

Looking for Alpha

But crypto has largely stagnated since. While Ethereum is still well ahead of the mid-June lows and has significantly outperformed Bitcoin (BTC-USD) over this period, the action since the merger has been less than stellar with ETH now down drastically. around 20% in the last 5 days. Turns out “The Merge” has been a rumored big buy, sell out news event so far. Of course, there is also a macro to blame here with warmer than expected CPI prints last week. Although the price of the token does not show it, the merger was a great success in many ways.

The success of “The Merge”

Ethereum’s merging of proof-of-work with proof-of-stake is significant. From a purely technological standpoint, it’s incredibly impressive that the development team was able to pull this off without any issues. And judging by the number of people who saw it live, it was one of the biggest events in crypto history. While I’m not trying to hide my personal philosophical issues with the perceived decentralization of Ethereum as a network, I think the success of The Merge has actually reduced the risk of ETH the currency a bit and given more credit to the cryptocurrency ecosystem as an investment idea.

If any of the staked values ​​were somehow compromised by the potential failure of The Merge, it would theoretically have been catastrophic for the network effect that Ethereum has used over the past few years. Much of this growth has involved DeFi. Despite the proliferation of blockchains that now have a DeFi footprint, the market still relies heavily on Ethereum for base-layer security:

DeFi Market TVL
Ethereum $30.3 billion
Polygon (MATIC-USD) $1.35 billion
Arbitration $932 million
Optimism (OP-USD) $836 million
Total market $52.7 billion
Ethereum footprint 63%

Source: DeFi Lama

Polygon, Arbitrum, and Optimism are all Ethereum Layer 2 solutions that use Ethereum’s network. And that doesn’t include the market caps of the tokens of the protocols that build those apps. Some of the major dexes, lending protocols, content projects, and derivative networks are all built on Ethereum and use ERC-20 tokens.

Ethereum survived a major turning point in the history of the network. And there’s a lot of value in the rest of the cryptocurrency market that’s probably a little safer than it was just a week ago. But as is often the case, we are already waiting impatiently for the sequel. Some of the focus of the Ethereum community has now shifted from “melting” to “flipping”.

What is Flippening?

The reversal is the theoretical moment when Ethereum overtakes Bitcoin as the number one cryptocurrency by market capitalization. At the time of writing, Bitcoin’s advantage is just over 2:1 on a non-fully diluted ratio.

Piece of money Market capitalization Fully Diluted Market Cap
Bitcoin $370 billion $405 billion
Ethereum $166 billion $166 billion

Source: CoinMarketCap

So how viable is flipping? Frankly, I think it’s possible for that to happen, although I don’t think we’ll see it for several years. What I think gives the flip idea some credence is the growth of on-chain wallet addresses for Ethereum. Although the market caps of each coin do not necessarily show it, the growth of Ethereum as a network has actually far exceeded that of Bitcoin if we judge only by the on-chain wallet addresses that have a non-zero balance. .

ETH versus BTC wallets


There are 86.4 million non-zero balance ETH wallets and 42.8 million non-zero BTC wallets. This shows a user-generated network effect that cannot be ignored and is largely explained by the amount of additional layers and applications that have been built on top of Ethereum. After all, ETH is still the gas needed for transactions that members of the ecosystem execute. Year-to-date, we have seen non-zero balance addresses increase by 16.9% for ETH but only 9.5% for BTC. Looking further ahead, the growth since the peak of the 2017 bull cycle has been staggering.

January 2018 8.5 27.7
January 1, 2022 72.2 39.1
Now 84.4 42.8
YTD 16.9% 9.5%
Since the last peak of the bull cycle 892.9% 54.5%

Source: CoinMetrics

Since the peak of the 2017 bull run in crypto, ETH’s non-zero balance growth has been nearly 900% while BTC’s non-zero growth has only increased by 54.5% over the course of 2017. of the same period. This has undoubtedly contributed to the adoption of Ethereum as a crypto ecosystem and helped close the market capitalization gap between the two coins. It’s not just non-zero balances where ETH has grown faster than BTC. While Bitcoin addresses with at least $100 are still just under double those of Ethereum, BTC’s multiple in this metric has fallen from 5.6 at the bear market bottom in December 2019 to less than 2 today. today.

BTC vs. ETH Addresses


In the chart above, we see ETH outperforming during bull markets and underperforming during bear markets. What is interesting during the current bear market is how well ETH has managed to keep the ratio below 2 despite falling coin prices. During the 2017 bull run, Bitcoin topped in December while Ethereum actually topped in January 2018. By late January and early February, the $100 BTC/ETH minimum address ratio had fallen to 2.3 . It took about a year for BTC’s multiple ratio to double from the February 2018 low. We’re back on track to see the same happen this time around, but from a point of starting much lower, indicating that Ethereum has strengthened as a cycle-to-cycle network against Bitcoin.

The market cap story is slightly different

Despite growing network addresses with non-zero balances and $100 lows, Ethereum’s market capitalization never really eclipsed its 2017 high against Bitcoin. In June 2017, ETH as a percentage of BTC market capitalization reached 83%. During this recent run, ETH never exceeded 55%.

ETH Flipping MC

While I think some might take this as evidence of Bitcoin’s future dominance, Ethereum’s market cap has actually held up quite well despite the tough bull run compositions of 2017. The previous bull was a bit different from the latter as BTC and ETH seemingly rallied in turns. We see the MC percentage of ETH to BTC MC rise to 83% in June 2017 before collapsing to 14% in December 2017. After the Bitcoin bubble burst in December, Ethereum’s market capitalization compared to Bitcoin’s market capitalization again exceeded 64% in February 2018. These were truly unsustainable swings. What we saw in the 2021 bull run was a bit more organized, with all boats largely rising together.


I think the biggest risk to Ethereum, and by extension “rollover” as a narrative, is regulation. Even though ETH can now be positioned as a more eco-friendly crypto than BTC, one could try to argue that ETH is now a security after the switch to proof-of-stake. I personally disagree with this argument, but it is something that should be considered when investing in crypto. Additionally, the SEC is specifically warn the banks on how they keep cryptocurrencies, potentially making it cost prohibitive for some to offer the service.


While I still think we are a few years away from Ethereum overtaking Bitcoin by market cap, I think it could be argued that the “turnaround” has already happened when it comes to users. Most DeFi takes place on Ethereum. Ethereum still controls the NFT market judging by sales volume and buyer statistics. It’s unclear if any or all of these things continue. But if you think crypto is here to stay, Ethereum will continue to be a Tier 1 smart contract chain in the industry. The network effect was faster than that of BTC based on on-chain wallet addresses and there is no doubt that there is more construction on Ethereum and its scaling chains than on Bitcoin du application point of view.

Role of robots in various industries and why industrial automation is important Sun, 18 Sep 2022 05:48:56 +0000

By Atul Patil

Robotics is a major and very important component of industrial automation. The balance maintained in factories and workshops through the introduction of robotics and automation has transformed work processes and improved efficiency manifolds. The use of automation and robotics is transforming various industries in this advanced era. Robots are now an essential part of manufacturing processes in many industries due to the precision they provide and their ability to work for long hours without fatigue.

When industrial robotics projects first emerged, they brought confusion and denial. Automation is now widely used in many industries, from healthcare to agriculture, despite the fact that it was once more theoretical than practical in many of them.

During the first phase of this revolution, electric machines were introduced that performed repetitive tasks without fatigue. These robots have been used in the automotive industry and other similar applications. The second phase brought industrial robots which, in addition to performing basic tasks, also absorbed data to evolve and become better. Today, robots have revolutionized many important industries, some of which include:

1. Health industry: Healthcare is not only one of the fastest growing industries, but it is also one of the most developed sectors. Over time, it has grown rapidly taking advantage of new technologies and innovations, including robotic automation. A range of Robots is now specially designed for medical applications in environments requiring very low particle emissions such as the pharmaceutical, medical or semiconductor industries.

2. Automotive industry: Small robots and robotic automation are needed to meet the changing demands of the automotive industry, enabling leading two-wheeler manufacturers to create vehicles that are safer, more comfortable, environmentally friendly, efficient and prepared for the future. Due to their high accuracy and flexibility, some robots can highlight all aspects of the part, including quality assurance, haptic measurements, and assembly of complex components. These robots are capable of performing their tasks around the clock at full speed.

Also Read: Patanjali to Launch 4 IPOs, to List Ayurved, Wellness, Medicine, Lifestyle in Few Years; 3 more announcements later

3. Food: Compared to other sectors, the food industry makes selective use of robotics. But over time, this industry is growing at a very rapid pace and the diversity of possible applications such as picking and placing raw materials or processed foods, slicing, cutting, sorting, dispensing and many other activities would require nearby robots. coming. Given the stricter hygiene standards, some robots are able to trace the products and processes involved in their manufacture. These robots are an integral part of the ecosystem today and will be in the future as well. These robots ensure and guarantee quality even for sealing specifications and for food grade greases in accordance with the hygiene guidelines of the American NSF (National Sanitation Foundation)

4. Industry producing semiconductors and electronics

A multi-joint horizontal robot with a space-saving suspended installation mode is suitable for a wide range of applications, from precision assembly of small electrical, electronic and other components to inspections, high-speed transportation and processing. packaging. SCARA robots, drive products, power distribution and control products, computerized digital controllers, and a wide variety of other products and solutions provide better technical support.

The future of robotic automation

With Industry 4.0 in place, robotic process automation will gradually expand its footprint in other major industries as well as divisions of current industries, emphasizing their importance in the contemporary manufacturing process.

Importance of Automation in Industry 4.0

We are in the midst of an advanced industrial revolution that makes it possible to manage complex machines and processes much more efficiently and affordably than ever before. By reducing the need for human labor in redundant and dangerous processes, automation allows companies to focus on critical operations, energy consumption and safety. Due to the many technological changes affecting our industries, there is an urgent need for high-end and precise products that can only be met by high levels of productivity. Engineering systems, automated manufacturing, and industrial automation all play a role here.

Industry 4.0 and automation is currently taking shape through technologies such as AI, 5G, advanced automation, advanced sensing and many more which have dramatically changed how various industries operate and how their processes are executed. Automation in Industry 4.0 puts a strong emphasis on efficiency and optimization while significantly reducing the possibility of errors. In a manual process where the margin of error can reach up to 10% when humans do the work, an automated platform can reduce it significantly.

Why Industrial Automation Matters

In addition to discrete manufacturing companies, the following factors are propelling new market entrants into the industrial automation sector:

Cost efficiency: As automation requires less human intervention, it reduces production costs. Apart from this, the implementation of virtual and augmented reality, coupled with automation, helps to increase the productivity of business models and facilitate learning.

Competitive advantages: Due to the nature of industrial automation technology, production is continuous and operational 24/7. As a result, it provides competitive advantages in terms of increased productivity, capacity and process quality, while minimizing job errors and the cost of downtime.

Time reduction: Information processing time is reduced thanks to Automation 4.0. For the storage and management of data generated by the processes, the platform has a large capacity.

Flexibility and scalability: A human operator needs training because the industrial sector is dynamic and the tasks are constantly changing. The flexibility and scalability of robots and machines is maintained because they can be precisely programmed in a limited amount of time and are reconfigurable.

Maximized security: Machines may be assigned risky tasks by the production line that pose a significant risk to workers. For components, machines, people and systems, advanced security controls can also be implemented. With collaborative robots, the robot and humans can share a common workspace.

Monitored control: Automated processes are controlled, monitored, and recorded to generate the big data that helps identify patterns, improve operations, and implement changes to prevent future job errors.

Also Read: FSDC Emphasizes Ongoing Monitoring of Financial Sector Risks

Automation is expected to grow at an exponential rate globally in the coming years, which will give a rapid acceleration to the growth and development of robotics in the industrial division. At the same time, India is embracing Industry 4.0 at a reasonable pace and has seen tremendous growth thanks to recent advances in automation. Industry 5.0 is a more recent trend that emphasizes immediate customer service, customization and the integration of humans and cobots (collaborative robots) to be proactive in the new model of industrial automation and adopt new technological advances.

(Atul Patil is Deputy General Manager, Marketing Dept, Factory Automation & Industrial Division, Mitsubishi Electric India. The views expressed in the article are those of the author and do not reflect the official position or policy of )

The uncomfortable link between poo and privacy Fri, 16 Sep 2022 05:03:22 +0000

New York state officials struggled in mid-summer to shed light on a polio outbreak. They used a proven approach that has gained new attention in monitoring the spread of COVID-19: the collection and analysis of water samples containing human waste from sewage systems.

Wastewater monitoring has a long history in the fight against infectious diseases. More recently, it has been implemented in at least eight states in the track an outbreak of monkeypox. But it comes with its own risks, including the potential to infringe on privacy and to be used for purposes other than public health, such as in law enforcement – ​​uses which, if pushed too far far, could further erode Americans’ trust in government.

There is no denying that the value of wastewater monitoring as a public health tool is undeniable. Last July, doctors in Rockland County, New York, diagnosed a 20-year-old man with the first case of polio in the United States in nearly a decade. Public health officials wanted to get ahead of the disease so they could roll out vaccinations. In the past of the disease, by the time they saw a case, it was too late to protect the patient and, probably, too late to prevent the spread of poliomyelitis. So state officials went looking for signs of the disease in nearby communities — in the sewage.

They discovered that polio was not a problem they could simply eliminate. In addition to Rockland County, sewage tests revealed the disease in at least two other counties as well as New York, prompting Governor Kathy Hochul to declare a public health emergency and take steps to scale up vaccinations.

Push back against COVID-19

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a major and persistent problem had been tracking the spread of the disease and its variants. Counties were the building blocks of the data system, but data collection was often weak, especially in states where top officials made COVID-19 a political corner. Additionally, across the country, not all counties have collected COVID-19 data in the same way. It was difficult to fight the disease in the dark. Researchers at the University of California, San Diego have found they can detect RNA indicative of COVID-19 in campus wastewater. They collected the data and published it on a digital dashboard. On a summer afternoon in 2020, the research team detected one positive case. Over the weekend, they tested more than 650 people living and working in the dormitory and helped stop a COVID-19 outbreak in its tracks.

The success of the UC San Diego experiment led the CDC to create a new National Wastewater Monitoring System. The system funded the development of wastewater treatment systems across the country, covering health services in over 40 jurisdictions which serve more than 16% of the country’s population. The CDC has estimated that at least 80% of the population could eventually be served by monitoring the poop and urine flowing down the nation’s sewers. Other scholars have taken up the theme; the University of California, Merced, created a dashboardaptly called COVIDPoops19, which now tracks wastewater monitoring efforts in 70 countries.

Newsha Ghaeli, a former MIT student, holds the prototype of a device used in sewage systems to track and analyze a wide range of pathogens. Ghaeli then launched wastewater testing startup Biobot Analytics. (David Kidd/Governor)

COVID-19, monkeypox and poliomyelitis show what wastewater monitoring can accomplish. But as Vladimir Putin’s strange drive on the road shows, it can also raise big questions. Putin is apparently so concerned about what he might leave behind – and what it might tell adversaries about his health – that his bodyguards collect his excrement as he travels, put it in separate bundles, pack it in a special briefcase, and bring it home.

Presumably, few Americans would go so far as to create a personal poop patrol. But wastewater monitoring raises big privacy issues that go far beyond what’s behind a closed door. It can, as we have seen, detect COVID-19, monkeypox and poliomyelitis. But it can also detect pesticides and pharmaceuticals, including illegal ones. The concern is that this could, in turn, draw police attention to individual neighborhoods.

Of course, sewage monitoring cannot identify anyone’s individual waste (unless the system is as elaborate as Putin’s). But the system can identify problems in relatively small neighborhoods. The same science that allowed UC San Diego scientists to zero in on a particular dormitory would also allow local police to zero in on a few blocks where sewers suggest cocaine use or fentanyl manufacture.

The issue of gunshot detection

Sophisticated technology identifying individual neighborhoods has already eroded trust. While the Inspector General of Chicago found that police responses to the ShotSpotter gunshot detection system “rarely yield evidence of a gun crime, rarely result in investigative stops, and even less frequently lead to the recovery of related evidence to a firearms felony during an investigative arraignment,” Judge MacArthur said. Center documented that Chicago’s system had been “massively rolled out in black and Latino neighborhoods”, exacerbating “resident distrust and fear”.

Wastewater monitoring risks the same problems, especially as the technique becomes more sophisticated and allows investigators to focus on particular communities. It is possible to imagine, indeed, days not too distant that would allow investigators to obtain a search warrant to check the waste from a single building that they find suspicious.

At this point, the potential for using wastewater monitoring outside the realm of public health might only be theoretical – at least in this country. Yet its value for disease monitoring and control is so enormous that its use for this purpose is likely to continue to grow. With a surveillance system that uses a constant (indeed, unavoidable) supply of raw materials and can identify neighborhoods where diseases are emerging before many cases appear, it is easy to imagine that water testing waste becomes a first-line tool in public health – what is already called “wastewater epidemiology.”

But the risks are real. For a long time in American federalism, the adage has been that trust in government is greater the closer government is to the people. Wastewater monitoring is all the more useful as scientists get closer to people. It puts a whole new spin on the “eeewww” reaction that the mere mention of the government evokes in so many Americans these days, pushing their concerns to those little rooms where people value their privacy most. This may not be the prescription for building confidence.

GoverningThe opinion columns of reflect the opinions of their authors and not necessarily those of Governingeditors or management.

Tay Gavin Erickson Fall 2022 Lecture Series Welcomes Belinda Campos: UMass Amherst Tue, 13 Sep 2022 22:38:58 +0000

On Monday, September 26 at 4 p.m., the Center for Family Research will host Belinda Campos as part of the Tay Gavin Erickson Lecture Series.


Belinda Campos

Belinda Campos is a professor and chair of the Chicano/Latino Studies Department at the University of California, Irvine (UCI), as well as affiliated with the medical school’s PRIME-LC program and the Department of Psychological Sciences. Campos studies the factors that promote high-quality relationships, with a particular focus on understanding how sociocultural context shapes relationship experiences in ways beneficial to health. Findings from his work show that sociocultural contexts that emphasize prioritizing others before self (e.g., Latinos and East Asians) can benefit relationships and protect health. This work is credited with generating new insights that advance scientific understanding of culture, positive emotions, relationships, and the link between relationships and health.

His lecture will focus on how social relationships can improve quality of life by conferring higher levels of subjective well-being, greater resilience in the face of adverse circumstances, and better health. In this talk, Campos argues that Latino contexts are of theoretical and applied interest in studying these issues and presents a series of studies that show that Latino cultural values ​​that emphasize concern for others are associated with benefits for relationship quality and health implications.

The free public event will be held in a hybrid format, on Zoom and at South College, Room W201. More information and registration is available on the Center for Family Research website.

Google Animation, Attack Vulnerabilities and Layer 2 Implications Mon, 12 Sep 2022 07:26:00 +0000

By IST (Released)


On September 15, 2022, the Ethereum network will adopt the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism in place of its current Proof-of-Work (PoW) system. This is a momentous event that perhaps the entire cryptoverse has been waiting for for years.

On September 15, 2022, the Ethereum network will adopt the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism in place of its current Proof-of-Work (PoW) system. This is a momentous event that perhaps the entire cryptoverse has been waiting for for years. And, as the date draws nearer, news and predictions around The Merge also seem to be coming in droves and fast.

Here are three of the most recent and notable updates on Ethereum’s transition to PoS.

Google Adds Ethereum Merger Countdown

Google has added a countdown timer to the Ethereum merger. Any “Ethereum merge” or related searches will take you to a countdown with the days, hours and minutes remaining until the update. It also highlights the current difficulty of mining and the difficulty at which smelting takes place. It also shows two pandas running to kiss, symbolizing the merging of Ethereum’s main chain and its PoS beacon chain. The pandas will get closer to each other as The Merge approaches.

The tech conglomerate also had good reason to add the animation, with the term “Ethereum Merge” seeing much higher search volumes over the past few days.

Security experts warn of post-merger vulnerability

Proof-of-stake blockchains are said to be less susceptible to 51% attacks. Indeed, anyone planning such an exploit would have to stake massive amounts of ETH to control 51% or more of the network’s transaction validation rights. They would also risk losing all of their staked ETH, leading to huge losses. However, one particular blockchain developer and security expert warns of potential post-merger vulnerabilities.

In an interview with Corner Telegraph, he explained that the proof-of-stake consensus mechanism informs the nodes in advance about the blocks they will validate. This foreknowledge can allow malicious actors to orchestrate what is known as a reorganization attack, which typically takes place when a network update occurs. The expert explained that such an attack is theoretically possible after The Merge if the validators manage to align two consecutive blocks to be validated.

“If you control two consecutive blocks, you can start an exploit on block N and end it on block N+1 without any arbitrage bot coming in and fixing the price you manipulated in between” , said the expert, choosing to remain anonymous.

He explained that reorganization attacks are possible on PoW blockchains, but it would depend on luck to succeed. He also explained that such an attack is still only theoretical and that PoS is an otherwise secure consensus mechanism.

“But that being said

The effect of The Merge on layer 2 blockchains

There have also been some whispers about the viability of Layer 2 scaling solutions after the merge. Many have wondered if such solutions would still be needed after the transition to PoS and the eventual adoption of sharding somewhere in 2023. However, several experts have explained that The Merge will have no effect on L2 chains.

“It will be business as usual for L2s. These solutions still have key value for short, medium and long-term scalability. L2s will still be needed to meet the growing demand and use of blockchains across Even 100,000 transactions per second won’t be enough to meet true global demand and adoption.”

Some even see The Merge as beneficial rather than worrisome. “As Ethereum L1 becomes more efficient, L2s will simply become even more efficient while preserving their existing additional benefits,” said Alan Chiu, founder of Boba Network, a Layer 2 scaling solution for Ethereum.

An example would be Polygon, which could see its carbon footprint shrink by 60,000 tonnes, according to the Crypto Carbon Ratings Institute (CCRI). The CCRI estimates that nearly 99.92% of Polygon’s emissions come from activity on Ethereum’s base layer.

Therefore, with The Merge expected to reduce Ethereum’s energy consumption by 99%, Polygon’s annual carbon emissions will be reduced to 56.22 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e). This is a steep drop from its current emission levels of 60,953.26 tCO2e.


The Ethereum merger is a huge event in the cryptoverse. This will have far-reaching effects on the rest of the crypto industry. And with only a few days until the merger, we won’t have to wait too long to see how these effects materialize and take shape.

Postdoctoral Fellow in Simulations of Multi-Contact Superlubricty job with NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY – NTNU Thu, 08 Sep 2022 04:00:24 +0000

About the job

We have a vacancy for a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Materials Group at Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering.

We are looking for you with a background in non-equilibrium simulation, ideally, but not necessarily, with a background in surface science or nanoscale friction or dissipative particle dynamics. The position is part of the EIC Pathfinder SSLiP (Scaling SuperLubricity into Persistence) project. The driving concept behind SSLiP is structural superlubricity, extremely low friction that occurs at lattice mismatch between clean, flat, and rigid crystalline surfaces. Structural superlubricity is currently a laboratory curiosity limited to the micrometer scale and laboratory times.

The objective of the position is to study and understand the behavior of collections of superlubric contacts of 2D materials under non-ideal conditions, such as roughness and non-uniform loads. The SSLiP project aims to develop new ways for superlubrication to survive in less than ideal conditions and to bring superlubrication to the macro scale to impact real-world products.

Friction between moving parts and associated wear and tear is estimated to be directly responsible for 25% of global energy consumption, meaning any significant reduction could have a huge technological and societal impact.

The simulations will be combined with individual contact simulations performed by another postdoc at NTNU. You will interact closely with experimental and theoretical scientists working on single and multi-asperity contacts, to relate the different length scales and build a coherent framework. The SSLiP project involves close collaboration with groups in Dublin, Munich, Amsterdam, Lyon and Milan. The postdoctoral fellow position is a temporary position whose main objective is to qualify for work in senior academic positions.

Your immediate boss is the teacher.

Job duties

  • perform superlubric contact simulations under various conditions
  • work closely with other scientists working on atomistic and mesoscale simulations
  • support and collaborate closely with experimenters
  • interpret the results and help develop simplified models to combat superlubric multicontact slippage
  • use the new understanding to suggest conditions that will lead to robust and long-lasting superlubrication

Selection criteria required

  • you must have obtained a Norwegian doctorate or a corresponding foreign doctorate recognized as equivalent to a Norwegian doctorate in physics, chemistry, materials science or a similar field
  • you must have relevant professional experience in molecular dynamics simulations, for example using LAMMPS or GROMACS, or Dissipative Particle Dynamics
  • you must have experience writing simulations from scratch
  • you must have a history of solid publications and/or conference attendance in relevant fields
  • you need good written and spoken English skills

The appointment is to be made in accordance with Regulations on the conditions of employment for positions such as postdoctoral fellow, doctoral candidate, research assistant and specialist candidate.

Preferred Selection Criteria

  • surface science experiment
  • nanotribology experiment
  • experiment with the dynamics of dissipative particles

Personal characteristics

  • very motivated
  • able to work both in a research team and to carry out personal research projects
  • enthusiasm for basic and applied research

Emphasis will be placed on personal and interpersonal qualities.

We offer

Salary and conditions

As a postdoctoral fellow (code 1352), you are normally paid from NOK 563,500 gross per year before tax, depending on qualifications and seniority. From the salary, 2% is deducted as a contribution to the Norwegian civil service pension fund.

The term of employment is 2 years.

The commitment must be made in accordance with the regulations in force concerning State Employees and Officials, and acts relating to the control of the export of strategic goods, services and technologies. Applicants who, after evaluation of the application and attachment, are found to conflict with the criteria of the latter Act will be barred from recruitment at NTNU.

After the appointment, you should assume that there may be changes in the working area.

The position is externally funded.

This is a prerequisite for being present and accessible to the establishment on a daily basis.

About the application

The application and supporting documents to be used as the basis for assessment must be in English.

Publications and other scientific work must follow the application. Please note that applications are only assessed against the information available at the application deadline. You should ensure that your application clearly indicates how your skills and experience meet the criteria set out above.

If for any reason you have interrupted your career or have had an atypical career and wish to reflect this in your application, the selection committee will take this into account, recognizing that the amount of your research may be reduced.

The request must include:

  • CV and certificates
  • complete list of publications
  • transcripts and bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees
  • academic work – published or unpublished – that you would like to see considered in the assessment (up to 10 items)
  • name and address of three arbitrators

If all or part of your training was completed abroad, we also ask that you attach documentation on the extent and quality of your overall training. The description of the required documentation can be found here. If you already have a statement from NOKUT, please attach it as well.

Joint work will be considered. If it is difficult to identify your contribution to joint work, you must attach a brief description of your participation.

In evaluating the most qualified candidate, emphasis will be placed on education, experience, and personal and interpersonal qualities. Motivation, ambitions and potential will also count in the evaluation of candidates.

NTNU is committed to following the research quality assessment criteria according to The San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment – DORA.

general informations

Owork at NTNU

NTNU believes that inclusion and diversity is a strength. We want our faculty and staff to reflect the cultural diversity of the Norwegian population and we continually seek to hire the best minds. This enables NTNU to increase productivity and innovation, improve decision-making processes, increase employee satisfaction, compete academically with the world’s top institutions, and meet our social responsibilities. in education and research. NTNU emphasizes accessibility and encourages qualified applicants to apply regardless of gender identity, ability, periods of unemployment, or ethnic and cultural background.

NTNU is actively working to increase the number of women employed in scientific positions and has a number of resources to promote equality.

The city of Trondheim is a modern European city with a rich cultural scene. Trondheim is Norway’s innovation capital with a population of 200,000. The Norwegian welfare state, including health care, schools, kindergartens and general equality, is probably the best of its kind in the world. Subsidized professional day care for children is easily accessible. Additionally, Trondheim offers great education opportunities (including international schools) and opportunities to enjoy nature, culture and family life and has a low crime rate and clean air. own.

As an employee of NTNU, you must at all times adhere to the changes that the development of the subject implies and the organizational changes that are adopted.

A public list of candidates with name, age, job title and municipality of residence is prepared after the application deadline. If you wish to reserve an inscription on the public list of candidates, this must be justified. The evaluation will be done in accordance with Current legislation. You will be notified if the reservation is not accepted.

If you have any questions about the position, please contact Professor Astrid de Wijn, email If you have any questions about the recruitment process, please contact HR Consultant Linn-Cecilie Felle, email:

If you think this sounds interesting and matches your qualifications, please submit your application electronically via with your CV, diplomas and certificates attached. Applications submitted elsewhere will not be considered. Upon request, you must be able to obtain certified copies of your documentation.

Application deadline: 02.10.2022



NTNU – knowledge for a better world

The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) creates knowledge for a better world and solutions that can change everyday life.

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

We train graduates who can create new products, operate and maintain products, and manage projects. The Department offers a variety of bachelor’s and master’s degree programs. We conduct extensive research in areas such as technology, energy, product quality and development, and productivity. The Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering is one of the eight departments of the Faculty of Engineering.

Deadline October 2, 2022

Employer NTNU – Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Municipality Trondheim

Scope Full time

Duration Temporary

place of service Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

Retired RCU professor sets up charity institute to train young people in math Sun, 04 Sep 2022 14:46:00 +0000

While most college teachers seek a relaxed post-retirement lifestyle, here’s a teacher who is actively championing the cause of the math job in his evening years.

Tamraparni Venkatesh, who retired as a professor in the mathematics department of Rani Channamma University, established a charitable institute to popularize mathematics and train young people in advanced trends in this field.

The Belagavi Institute of Mathematical Sciences, which he established with his friends in 2002, has been organizing seminars and workshops for 20 years, celebrating events related to eminent mathematicians and organizing university sessions and research programs of third cycle for doctoral and post-doctoral students. “MSIB has run several workshops in schools to take the fear out of math by showing that it can be fun and easy, if they are interested in it,” Prof Venkatesh said.

The theme of this year’s research program is Geometry, topology and combinatorics. MSIB has aligned several programs in this direction.

IISc’s Harish Sheshadri inaugurated a 16-week immersed learning program. Besides geometry, topology and combinatorics, the program covers theoretical concepts from physics and computer science. Up to five students pursuing a doctorate will receive a financial incentive to attend. At the end of the course, they will receive a certificate which will add value to their bio data.

Recently, four IISc researchers traveled to Belagavi to give online lectures in advanced areas of mathematics to graduate and postgraduate students.

“MSIB alumni contacted Ken Ono, a Japanese-born mathematician currently at the University of Virginia, USA. He is a number theorist who built his work on the number theory of Srinivasan Ramanujan. Professor Ono, who is a visiting professor at IIT Gauhati, has agreed to be his honorary professor at MSIB. He assured us that he will visit Belagavi and address the students,’ Prof Venkatesh said.

Professor Venkatesh and his friends wanted to create a university institute on the model of the Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Prayagraj (Allahabad) and the Chennai Mathematical Institute.

The opportunity arose during his visit to the United States. He taught mathematics at Corning Community College in New York as a Fulbright Scholar in the Scholar in Residence program. “A visit to Paulo Alto inspired me to start the institute at my home in Belagavi, he says.

One day I visited a small office on the corner of a mall in Paulo Alto. I learned that the mall owner was a science and math lover. He had created a center with free access to a library and a reading room for students. I spent half a day at the center and decided to create a charity institute for mathematics. I started with meager resources, but made a commitment to dedicate ten percent of my annual income to this purpose. Now we have alumni in various prestigious places around the world,” he said.

“The MSIB also organizes the cycle of lectures on the history of mathematics. Senior mathematicians like SG Dani from Mumbai gave the lectures. During the lockdown, we held online conferences,” Deputy Director J. Venkat Ramana Raju said.

23rd OLAF training on digital forensics and analysts Fri, 02 Sep 2022 14:54:46 +0000

The training is funded by the European Union Anti-Fraud Program (UAFP) (2021-2027).

It is aimed at staff working for law enforcement authorities competent in the fight against fraud and corruption to the detriment of the EU budget. Officials from Member States, acceding and candidate countries, EFTA/EEA countries, countries covered by the European Neighborhood Policy and certain countries with which the European Union has concluded a mutual assistance agreement customs can apply.

In particular, trainees must work in digital forensics, computer crime or analytical units which may be involved in fraud or anti-corruption investigations, including cooperation with OLAF in the investigation of the protection of the financial interests of the EU.

The courses that will be taught are:

BCFE (2 week course) October 17-28, 2022

The IACIS BCFE (Basic Computer Forensic) training program is a 76-hour course offered over a period of two (2) consecutive weeks. It is designed to provide students with the foundational knowledge needed to enter the IACIS Certified Forensic Computer Examiner (CFCE) certification process. Through a combination of lectures, instructor-led and independent hands-on exercises, and independent lab activities, students will learn the underlying principles of computer forensic examination and how to apply them in practice.

Although this program may appear to be primarily for students who are new or new to the field of computer forensics, it is also suitable for more advanced students and those who are long-time practitioners. IACIS adopts and the BCFE program defends a neutrality of forensic tools and an independent methodological approach to learning computer forensics. This allows IACIS to provide students with a deeper exploration of the underlying principles than might be offered in other programs, which are designed to teach students how to use a forensic tool to accomplish a task. The IACIS BCFE training event is unique in that there is a very low student to teacher ratio. IACIS typically provides one staff member for every six students to ensure a 1:6 staff to student ratio is maintained. We do this because students new to digital forensics are often overwhelmed by the in-depth coverage of material taught in class. These staff members assist students with hands-on exercises throughout each teaching module and again during an after-hours lab provided each evening during the two-week training session. Students are better able to learn when they have easy access to knowledgeable staff members. The low staff to student ratio is ideal for learning technical material.

In order to cover all the topics of the IACIS BCFE course, it is necessary for IACIS to use a minimum of 15 people. This allows for instructors who are intimately familiar with highly specialized segments of digital forensics. Each instructor serves as a true practitioner in the field of digital forensics and must maintain their CFCE certification. Most instructors come from a law enforcement background where they worked as forensic examiners for many years before becoming IACIS staff. Recruiting competent staff to teach this technical material is difficult and often requires several staff members to adequately teach all the subjects covered by the CFCE competencies.

OSINT (October 17-21, 2022)

This course focuses on the ability to gather information about people, companies, and financial data available online only from free available online sources. In addition to using advanced web searches and other websites, this course will take advantage of the tools available to look “under the surface” of the internet, access data through database APIs, web crawlers websites and more. Participants will learn the basic frameworks and procedures needed to conduct a financial investigation. Trainers will demonstrate and explain techniques on how to get information from the dark web, how to analyze cryptocurrencies, explore blockchain based on real case scenarios. The training is dedicated to the analysis of monetary fraud, financial investigations, cryptocurrency transactions, online data exchange.

Intermediate Linux (October 17-21, 2022)

This course follows the basic Linux Forensics course. It covers more advanced topics such as: networking, TCP/IP essentials, Wireshark, client/server ‘protocol pollution’, web server, PKI and OpenVPN. The course will cover the essential components and main areas of the operating system (Linux kernel essentials, service startup, scheduled tasks, processes). The participant will understand how the internal components of Linux work, how it is configured and managed, and how services are provided by Linux. Basic ideas of embedded Linux will also be presented. Finally, participants will learn the concepts of forensic analysis of a Linux-based system: retrieving operating system details, describing the system configuration, including examining the system environment, system users , protected areas (jails, sandboxes). This instructor leader training will provide hands-on experience through hands-on workshops and theoretical knowledge. At the end of the course, all participants will take an exam and upon successful completion they will receive an official certificate for passing the course.

Mobile Forensics Basic (October 24-28, 2022)

This course will provide trainees with the knowledge and skills they need to perform forensic examinations of mobile phones: collections from handsets and SIM cards, extraction of physical data from various types of devices such as iOS and Android, data analysis, search, bookmarking, visualization, incorporation of MPE + Tablet and Investigator, During the course will be used and presented XRY, UFED, Oxygen, Mobile Phone, Examiner Plus (MPE +).

The rise and rise of GiveDirectly Wed, 31 Aug 2022 14:24:27 +0000

This week one of the most interesting charities, GiveDirectly, announcement it had a new leader: Rory Stewart. He is the British writer and politician who previously headed the UK’s foreign aid department and ran against – and lost to – Boris Johnson in the race to become Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister in 2019 .

More than anything, hiring suggests how far GiveDirectly has come. For those unfamiliar, the group specializes in unconditional cash transfers (UCTs): it identifies poor people and villages, usually in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and distributes cash directly to them, usually through mobile phone payment, instead of donations like food and livestock.

Stewart told me in an interview that he was converted to the UCT cause by visiting GiveDirectly grantees in Rwanda earlier this year.

“What struck me was the extraordinary joy and positive feeling of the recipients and the local mayors,” he said. “The feeling that they had seen all the NGOs come in and out, but nothing with that kind of impact and that kind of speed.”

In the decade since its existence, GiveDirectly’s scale has exploded. He now gives hundreds of millions of dollars a year, not only in poor countries but also, on an experimental basis, to the poor in rich countries like the United States. It has become one of the largest and most important anti-poverty charities in the world.

This evolution, capped by the hiring of Stewart, tells us a lot about how the field of global development has changed and what the future might look like not just for global poverty charity, but also for the world. foreign aid and social policy.

The growth of GiveDirectly

When it started fundraising in 2011, GiveDirectly was a startup founded by Harvard and MIT graduate students, mostly academic economists.

It was a bold attempt to operationalize a theoretical belief common in economics but rarely applied in reality: that it is generally better to give people cold hard cash than goods “in kind”​ like housing or food, because recipients know best what they need, and cash is the most flexible way for them to get it.

Economists have long preferred cash transfers and decried in-kind programs as ineffective precisely because they leave beneficiaries less flexibility.

But at the time GiveDirectly was created, few if any foreign aid agencies or global development charities were giving money. The idea seemed far-fetched, even irresponsible.

Jacquelline Fuller, who leads philanthropy for Google, said that when she originally pitched the idea of ​​funding GiveDirectly to a patron, they responded: “You must smoke crack.” (Google would continue to donate to the charity.)

Stewart told me that when he was working on UK foreign aid and when GiveDirectly co-founder Michael Faye asked him for money, he was intuitively skeptical: “I felt [the Tory government] had told the British public that we all wanted to teach people to fish rather than give them fish, and it sounded like a fish project.

But the aid and charity landscape of 2022 is very different from a decade ago. When I first wrote about GiveDirectly in 2013, it had two employees and $5.4 million in revenue (already multiplied by ten compared to the previous year). In 2020it raised $306 million.

GiveDirectly has joined the ranks of the world’s largest anti-poverty charities. Heifer International, for example, the high-profile group that donates livestock and provides training to poor households, recorded $208 million in donations in its 2021 report.

GiveDirectly is not yet at the scale of, say, Médecins Sans Frontières ($1.9 billion) or UNICEF ($8.1 billion). But at the rate he’s growing, it’s not crazy to imagine he could soon reach that point.

In some ways, Stewart’s hiring as head of GiveDirectly is indicative of this transition in the group’s history. When former British Foreign Secretary David Miliband took over as head of the International Rescue Committee (IRC), few raised an eyebrow; it’s a great organization of the kind that a former high-ranking official of a G7 power should lead.

Stewart is a similar figure to Miliband, and that he would choose GiveDirectly is kind of a signal that the group has hit the big time and is about to join the ranks of IRC and its peers.

The ideological victory of cash

The growth of GiveDirectly is not only monetary; it is also political.

The group worked directly with USAID, the US government’s main foreign aid agency, on a variety of projectsincluding comparing existing USAID programs (sometimes unfavorably!) to a simple cash donation.

Other major charities like UNICEF or the International Rescue Committee agreed to donate money. And during the pandemic, not only have many new charities but many other national governments have adopted cash as their main method of relief.

The triumph of money isn’t just the product of GiveDirectly’s success. Conditional cash transfers – money tied to needs such as vaccinating household members or sending children to school – dates back to at least the 1990s, when Mexico launched the Progresa program and Brazil the Bolsa Familia program. These were popular policies and a common topic of conversation in development circles for many years before GiveDirectly came along.

What is unusual is that lately conditions have collapsed and the GiveDirectly approach of not attaching conditions has become more common.

Conditional and unconditional cash hold promise for long-time development professionals as ways to avoid some of the thorniest difficulties in their work. Stewart has spent much of his career working in countries in the midst of nation-building efforts; he made a name for himself with his popular memoirs detailing them, including a stint as an official of the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq and several years (and one famous month-long walk) working in Afghanistan.

In these efforts, the occupying powers were talking a big game about establishing the basic institutional conditions for economic development – things like state control over violence, prevention of corruption, or the state of right – in the nations they occupied. But the end results were often disappointing.

“Resolving violent conflict is incredibly important, good governance is incredibly important, fighting corruption, training civil society, democratic elections – all of these things matter, Stewart said.

“But my experience has been that it’s almost impossible for most foreigners to have a positive impact on these things because they tend to be rooted in political contexts that are very difficult for foreigners to understand, let alone influence. “, he added.

It is difficult enough for the people of the country in question to influence domestic political conditions, given the profound internal differences in national cultures. It is even more difficult for foreign diplomats and aid workers. “It’s easy to think that because you’re an Afghan you know what’s going on in Helmand. It’s like treating a Brooklyn resident like a great expert on West Virginia,” Stewart told me.

Cash transfers, for Stewart, avoid such quagmires by giving resources to people in local communities and not ordering them to act in the way that the international community or the national government wants them to act. “Inverting the pyramid and empowering recipients solves many of these problems,” he explained.

Growth through almsgiving?

This explanation from Stewart may sound defeatist: foreign aid cannot control some of the things that really matter, like the strength of the state, so it should just hand out money. But speaking to Stewart, his vision seems less defeatist and more utopian.

GiveDirectly is known for funding a huge amount of research into the effects of its programs, and I asked Stewart what big unanswered questions about money the organization might try to answer under his leadership.

“The bigger question is: ‘What role can money play in ending extreme poverty in the world?’ and model how the money could be used to lift an entire country out of extreme poverty,” he replied. “Traditionally, if we think of the models that development actors have of what it might mean to keep Liberia from being poor, we have tended to think in terms of the development of European countries or China or countries Southeast Asia, and tried to learn from it.. Much of it had to do with particular views on property rights, the rule of law, a pragmatically regulated private sector, certain types of investment in infrastructure, certain types of industrial policy.

“Of course, we want to know if cash transfers could have the same effect, and not just in the mathematical sense that if someone has less than $2 a day and you give them $2 a day, you have put an end to extreme poverty, which is a tautology. But by a multiplier effect,” he said.

To illustrate what he meant, Stewart used the assumption of a $3 billion program for Rwanda, providing lump-sum transfers of $1,000 to each person below a certain income threshold. This would, of course, mathematically make these people less poor. But Stewart argues it could be doing something more: It might be able to serve as a form of economic stimulus that fuels growth in the country more broadly. A major study of a $10 million GiveDirectly program in Kenya found this type of multiplier effect. The most recent version of the study finds a multiplier of 2.4: every dollar spent on cash transfers generated $2.40 of activity in the local economy.

It’s an intriguing proposition. No country has escaped poverty like this before: as Stewart puts it, the models of China and other “Asian tigers” underscore the importance not of foreign handouts but of domestic reforms aimed at strengthening export sectors. But such models have proven difficult to adapt to different national contexts, while sending cash is viable almost everywhere.

I will admit some personal skepticism that cash programs could have such a profound effect at the national level, simply because there are no success stories of money-driven growth. cash to report at this time. But Stewart seems determined to try.

As International Development Secretary, he recalls, “I was trying to show the public that $1 in foreign aid yields $1 in benefits. But if you show it to be $2.40, it starts to look less like giving a fish and more like giving “-here he stops and smiles-“a…magic fish.

Marlins open to trading excess rotation again this offseason Mon, 29 Aug 2022 20:53:42 +0000

As last year’s offseason began, reports surfaced that the Marlins were considering trading their stock of young starting pitchers to bolster their roster. In the end, they traded Zach Thompson as a member of Jacob Stallings trade, but stopped short of a more eye-catching deal.

It seems that strategy is still in play, with Barry Jackson and Craig Mish of the Miami Herald signaling that the club will once again be looking to trade throw for an extra attack. The report lists the aces Sandy Alcantara and the best hope of the club Eury Perez as the two “untouchable” arms of the team, with the others seemingly available at the right price.

In addition to the Thompson trade, there have been a few other ways the club’s rotational surplus has been reduced over the past year. Perspective Max Meyer made two starts before Tommy John surgery put him out of action for the rest of this year and potentially all of next year as well. Sixto Sanchez continued to deal with shoulder issues, having not started a game since 2020. Elieser Hernandez Struggled enough that he got knocked down in the bullpen and later went for the minors.

These setbacks aside, the club still has a mix that includes Alcantara, Pablo Lopez, Edward Cabrera, Jesus Luzardo, Trevor Rogers, Braxton Garrett, Daniel Castano, Nick Neidert, with the report listing Lopez, Cabrera and Rogers as logical trade candidates. He also indicates that the club would consider offering prospects to a rebuilding team in order to obtain players ready for the MLB. Although Perez is apparently not on the table, Jake Eder and Dax Fulton are mentioned as possibilities.

Lopez, 26, is no stranger to trade rumours, having been frequently mentioned both as someone who could be moved on and someone who is generating interest in the league. It was reported last week that the Marlins and Yankees had discussed a deal before the deadline which would have seen the Fish acquire Gleyber Torres and perspective on the ground Oswald Peraza, although the Yanks apparently balked at the deal. The Marlins are in no real rush to deal with him, as he can be controlled throughout the 2024 season by arbitration. He is in his third straight solid season, recording a 3.66 ERA in 25 starts this year. Perhaps more importantly, he has remained healthy and put aside some worries after missing part of last year with shoulder problems. He’s making $2.45 million this year and will get a raise for next season through arbitration, though he’s still very affordable and should attract interest from other teams.

Cabrera, 24, would make a very different trade chip, having much more control but less proven experience. He just made his MLB debut last year and has missed about six weeks this season with tendonitis in his elbow. He’s only got 15 MLB starts on his roster so far, but has shown promise in that time, recording a 3.71 ERA in his young career. He entered this year with just 40 days of MLB service, but was drafted in the spring and wasn’t called up until June 1, which should put him at just under a year at the end of this season. even if he remains in the big leagues for the rest of the campaign. That means he should still have six years of control beyond this one, despite being in his last option year, which means he’ll have to earn a spot on an MLB roster from next year or be designated for an assignment.

Rogers, 24, broke out last year with a 2.64 ERA in 25 starts but has regressed here in 2022. He has a 5.85 ERA in 19 starts and has been on the IL for more than a month due to back spasms. It should still be attractive given its previous performance and the last four years of testing, but it will certainly have reduced commercial value compared to a year ago.

Eder, 23, was a 2020 fourth-round pick. The southpaw made 15 Double-A starts last year with a 1.77 ERA before undergoing surgery at Tommy John in August. He is out this year and could be restricted in 2023, although the Marlins hope to hand him over to a rebuilding club, which may not be as concerned about the short-term prospects. Fulton is also a southpaw but much younger, turning 21 in a few months. He was a second-round pick in 2020, having climbed all the way to Double-A. Between High-A and Double-A this year, he has a 4.05 ERA in 102 1/3 innings.

Whether the club can get a deal will of course depend on whether they line up with another club. A team with designs in immediate conflict would likely be more interested in Cabrera, Rogers or Lopez, while a rebuilding club would lean towards Eder and/or Fulton. It will also depend on what that other notional club has to offer the Marlins in return. As Jackson and Mish note in their report, the Marlins will use the final weeks of the season to audition select position players and assess their future roles. JJ Bleday, Lewin Diaz, Jerar Encarnacion and Peyton Burdick are all listed as players trying to get jobs on the 2023 team. How they do in those auditions could impact who the Marlins are looking to target in trades to improve their roster. The team as a whole has been around 12% below the league average at home plate this year, as indicated by their 88 wRC+, a mark that places them 26th in the majors.