Theoretical Work – Radical Philosophy Thu, 16 Jun 2022 22:38:00 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Theoretical Work – Radical Philosophy 32 32 The Big Bang Theory Crew Treated Sheldon Like A Child More Than You Probably Remember Thu, 16 Jun 2022 22:38:00 +0000

In June 2022, Reddit user CorgiTacos31 issued a call to action for the “Big Bang Theory” community asking them to help compile a list of every time Sheldon’s friends treated him like a child. Fans from all corners of the site came to help, and calling their roster a long one would be an understatement. Penny brings him to Disneyland as her own child, she and Leonard have tucked him in several times, and they even talk to him as their son during their fights. And that’s just the tip of the iceberg. Sometimes Sheldon will reference the fact that they treat him like a little kid, but that never stops him from agreeing.

While he can be rude, a bit annoying, and legitimately naughty at times, Sheldon’s childishness helped make him endearing. Jim Parsons deserves a lot of credit for his performance as the character, even if his work made it difficult to reunite the “Big Bang Theory” prequel series “Young Sheldon.” “We thought, ‘Can we find a nine-year-old kid who can do what Jim Parsons did? That doesn’t seem possible! We’re not going to find that,'” producer Steve Holland in an interview with Express. However, that attitude changed once Iain Armitage landed on his radar, and after Holland and his team checked his audition tape, he landed the gig.

Whether portrayed as an incredibly mature child for his age or an adult with a prevalent childish side, Sheldon Cooper is an undisputed fan favorite.

A new study suggests a young Jupiter engulfed many planetesimals Sun, 12 Jun 2022 22:12:24 +0000

Jupiter is composed almost entirely of hydrogen and helium. The amounts of each closely match the theoretical amounts in the primordial solar nebula.

But it also contains other heavier elements, which astronomers call metals. Even though metals are a small component of Jupiter, their presence and distribution tell astronomers a lot.

Jupiter’s metal content and distribution means the planet ate a lot of rocky planetesimals in its youth, according to a new study.

Since NASA’s Juno spacecraft reached Jupiter in July 2016 and began collecting detailed data, it has transformed our understanding of Jupiter’s formation and evolution.

One of the characteristics of the mission is the Gravity science instrument. It sends radio signals back and forth between Juno and the Deep Space Network on earth.

The process measures Jupiter’s gravitational field and tells researchers more about the composition of the planet.

When Jupiter formed, it began by accrete rocky material. A period of rapid accretion of solar nebula gas followed, and after several million years Jupiter became the juggernaut it is today.

But there is an important question regarding the initial period of rock accretion. Did it accrete larger rock masses like planetesimals? Or has he accumulated materials the size of a pebble? According to the answer, Jupiter formed on different time scales.

A new study attempted to answer that question. It’s called “inhomogeneous envelope of Jupiter inhomogeneous envelope“, and it is published in the journal Astronomy and astrophysics. The lead author is Yamila Miguel, Assistant Professor of Astrophysics at Leiden Observatory and the Netherlands Institute for Space Research.

We’re getting more and more used to gorgeous images of Jupiter thanks to the Juno spacecraft JunoCam. But what we see is only superficial. All of these haunting images of clouds and storms are just the outermost thin 50 kilometers (31 miles) layer of the planet’s atmosphere.

The key to Jupiter’s formation and evolution is buried deep in the planet’s atmosphere, which lies tens of thousands of miles deep.

It is widely believed that Jupiter is the oldest planet in the solar system. But scientists want to know how long it took to form. The authors of the paper wanted to probe metals in the planet’s atmosphere using Juno’s Gravity Science experiment.

The presence and distribution of pebbles in the planet’s atmosphere plays a central role in understanding Jupiter’s formation, and the Gravity Science experiment measured the dispersion of pebbles throughout the atmosphere.

Prior to Juno and its Gravity Science experiment, there was no precise data on Jupiter’s gravity harmonics.

Researchers have discovered that Jupiter’s atmosphere is not as homogeneous as previously thought. There are more metals near the center of the planet than in the other layers. In total, the metals total between 11 and 30 earth masses.

With the data in hand, the team built models of Jupiter’s internal dynamics. “In this paper, we bring together the most comprehensive and diverse collection of interior models of Jupiter to date and use it to study the distribution of heavy elements in the planet’s envelope,” they said. . write.

The team created two sets of models. The first set consists of 3-layer models and the second of dilute-core models.

“There are two mechanisms by which a gas giant like Jupiter acquires metals during its formation: through the accretion of small pebbles or larger planetesimals”, said main author Miguel.

“We know that once a small planet is big enough, it starts pushing pebbles. The metal wealth inside Jupiter that we see now is impossible to achieve before then. So we can rule out with only pebbles as solids during Jupiter’s formation. Planetesimals are too big to block, so they must have played a part.”

The abundance of metals inside Jupiter decreases as one moves away from the center. This means a lack of convection in the planet’s deep atmosphere, which scientists thought was present.

“Previously, we thought that Jupiter had convection, like boiling water, which made it completely mixed,” said Miguel. “But our discovery shows differently.”

“We demonstrate in a robust way that the abundance of heavy elements is not homogeneous in the envelope of Jupiter”, explain the authors. write in their paper. “Our results imply that Jupiter continued to accrete heavy elements in large quantities as its hydrogen-helium envelope expanded, contrary to predictions based on pebble isolation mass in its simplest incarnation, favoring instead hybrid models based on planetesimals or more complex.”

The authors also conclude that Jupiter did not mix by convection after its formation, even when it was still young and hot.

The teams the results also extend the study of gaseous exoplanets and efforts to determine their metallicity. “Our result…provides a basic example for exoplanets: an inhomogeneous envelope implies that the observed metallicity is a lower bound on the planet’s overall metallicity.”

In the case of Jupiter, there was no way to determine its metallicity from a distance. It wasn’t until Juno arrived that scientists indirectly measure metallicity. “Therefore, metallicities inferred from remote atmospheric observations in exoplanets might not represent the overall metallicity of the planet.”

When the James Webb Space Telescope begins its scientific operations, one of its tasks is to measure the atmospheres of exoplanets and determine their composition. As this work shows, the data provided by Webb may not capture what is happening in the deep layers of gas giant planets.

This article was originally published by Universe today. Read it original article.

Vortex jets spotted in superconductors Wed, 08 Jun 2022 15:04:35 +0000

&ball; Physics 15, s77

Researchers have identified and studied vortex jets – swirling streams of electrons – that can form at edge defects in current-carrying superconductors.

AI Bezuglyj et al. [1]

A material defect at the edge of a superconductor can act as a gate for the entry of vortices – small loops of electrical current. But what trajectories do these vortices take inside the superconductor? And how do these paths change if the current in the material is increased or an external magnetic field is added? Oleksandr Dobrovolskiy of the University of Vienna and his colleagues have now answered these questions [1]. The findings could lead to the observation of new effects in superconductors, such as the generation of sound and spin waves.

In theoretical work, researchers have found that vortices created at an edge defect on a superconducting strip form a jet that passes through the strip thanks to the Lorentz force. This jet is narrow near the fault, but the mutual repulsion between the vortices causes it to widen as it moves to the opposite edge of the band. Such broadening produces a local voltage perpendicular to the current in the material, and this voltage first increases and then decreases as the current increases. The team derived expressions for the jet shape in narrow and wide bands and, for the latter, determined how this shape is affected by an external magnetic field.

In experiments, Dobrovolskiy and his colleagues confirmed their predicted voltage-current relationship for narrow bands. For broad bands, they showed that the derived magnetic field dependence of the jet shape is in agreement with previous observations. Finally, the researchers corroborated their findings with simulations, which showed that the jet narrows and then forms a “river” as the current increases. Adding to the researchers’ understanding of vortex dynamics in superconductors, the results could improve the performance of single-photon detectors based on superconductors.

–Ryan Wilkinson

Ryan Wilkinson is a freelance science editor and writer based in Durham, UK.


  1. AI Bezuglyj et al.“Vortex jets generated by edge defects in current-carrying superconducting thin strips”, Phys. Rev. B 105214507 (2022).


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Reviews | Congressional negotiators will not pass meaningful gun reform. But at this point, we’ll take anything. Mon, 06 Jun 2022 23:09:01 +0000
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If Congress and the President pass watered-down legislation that appears to have only a minimal effect on gun violence, does that count as progress? Shameful but realistic: Yes.

The bipartisan group of senators trying to reach a compromise has would have excluded all common sense measures that could significantly reduce the carnage as we saw in Uvalde, Texas. No renewal of the assault weapons ban which expired in 2004. No raising of the minimum age to buy an assault rifle from 18 to 21. No universal background checks, including at gun shows and private sales.

According to reports in The Post and other outlets, senators are instead focusing on red flag laws that would allow authorities to keep guns away from individuals deemed a threat to themselves or others — not necessarily a federal red flag law but maybe the carrot-and put in place incentives to encourage states to adopt such measures. The senators would also talk about putting more armed security guards in schools and increasing federal funding for mental health services.

It’s not as futile as trying to stop a rhino with a flyswatter, but it’s close.

I am for the red flag laws, which are already in the books in 19 states and DC A CBS News Monday report quoted Montgomery County, Maryland, Sheriff Darren Popkin said his state’s red flag law, used nearly 400 times last year, helped avert a specific threat to a Bethesda high school made by a student. “It’s not a theoretical approach,” Popkin said.

Florida issued nearly 9,000 “emergency hazard protection” orders since enacting its Red Flag Act in 2018, following the Parkland school massacre. But New York, with a similar population and much stricter gun laws, only issues about 500 gun forfeiture orders a year. The gunman accused of the Buffalo massacre last month is said to have shown warning signs of a possible spasm of violence. However, red flag laws not only require family members, friends, acquaintances and others to spot these signs, but also report their concerns – and a judge be persuaded to sign an order. confiscation.

If all states had such laws and aggressively enforced them, lives would surely be saved. But the warning signs are often only recognized as such in retrospect. Is a teenager who begins to dress all in black and listen to Marilyn Manson in crisis? Or are you just going through a goth phase?

Likewise, I am all for spending money to make mental health services more widely available. But only a small fraction of people diagnosed with a mental disorder commit acts of violence, and overworked mental health professionals are short-sighted. Mental health screening and treatment would likely prevent some would-be mass shooters from becoming so detached from reality that they act out apocalyptic fantasies or so depressed that they embrace mass shootings as a form of suicide. But how much?

As for making schools safer, no one can oppose doing everything possible to make school buildings safe spaces. But is a armed security guard stopped the Uvalde massacre? Nineteen police officers trained in bulletproof vests did not have the means to do so. And any society that chooses to turn schools into bunkers and playgrounds into prisons rather than stop gun violence at the source must take a long look in the mirror.

That said, if Senate negotiators come up with anything along those lines that 10 Republican senators will vote for — and that’s a big if — Congress should go ahead and approve it.

This is not a case where half a loaf is better than none; we’re likely to get a few slices, at best. And I believe Sen. Chris Murphy (D-Conn.), who has fought so tirelessly for so many years to get meaningful action on gun violence, is overly optimistic when he predicts Republicans will achieve somehow they can be on the right side of this issue and still survive in today’s GOP.

The reality is that they cannot, at least not at the national level. For now, any truly meaningful action on gun violence will likely have to happen in states. Florida got more serious about preventing mass shootings after Parkland. Texas officials and lawmakers must be held accountable after Uvalde.

Since so many firearms used in jurisdictions with strong gun control laws are obtained in states with lax controls, we need comprehensive national legislation. I am convinced that it will happen one day. I shudder to think of the number of victims who still have to die before that day comes.

For now, the only choice is to do something inappropriate or to do nothing at all. We might as well try the former. We know the latter does not work.

]]> What each main character’s salary would look like Sat, 04 Jun 2022 22:00:00 +0000

The careers of the main characters of The Big Bang Theory play a key role in the series, and here’s what each main character’s salaries and wages might look like in real life. Part of the show’s success, which ran between 2007 and 2019, came from the thrill of watching them embark on their impressive career paths. Four of the five main characters, Sheldon, Leonard, Howard, and Raj, are all highly trained Caltech scientists. Meanwhile, Penny is going through the biggest career change of any other character on the show. It’s never explicitly mentioned in the show, but there’s enough on-screen information to estimate what The Big Bang Theory the average character salaries could be.


At first glance, none of the characters seem extremely wealthy. In the first season, Sheldon and Leonard share a two-bedroom apartment in Pasadena, which in 2007 probably wouldn’t have cost them more than $1,500 each per month. Both Raj and Penny have their own one bedroom apartment and Howard still lives at home with his mother. An early plot point revolves around Sheldon and Leonard’s lack of finances as they go to a sperm bank to earn money. However, the band generally don’t seem to be big spenders; aside from their geeky collectibles which are probably worth a good amount of money, they don’t have a lot of extravagant spending.

Related: Big Bang Theory Missed Penny’s Perfect Ending (Instead of Being Pregnant)

Due to the success of the series, at the 2019 finale, each of the main cast would have earned $1,000,000 per episode. That’s way more money than any of their characters would have made home in twelve seasons of The Big Bang Theory. Here are the estimated salaries of the five main characters in the series.

Sheldon’s Salary

Sheldon with a bunch of cats in The Big Bang Theory

Dr. Sheldon Cooper (Jim Parson) is a senior theoretical physicist at the California Institute of Technology. He has two doctorates, obtaining the first when he was only 16 and the second four years later. This means that at the time The Big Bang Theory begins when Sheldon is 27, he’s probably left academia and has been working professionally for seven years. We see in several episodes that he can be quite generous when it comes to money; for example, he doesn’t mind stopping Penny from repaying a loan to him. This would suggest that Sheldon saved some money.

The average salary for a senior theoretical physicist at a top institute like Caltech is around $100,000. In order to move his research from string theory to dark matter, Sheldon was appointed junior professor in The Big Bang Theory season 8. This promotion would have increased his salary to around $140,000 per year. In the series finale, Sheldon and his wife Amy win a Nobel Prize which, alongside the $1.1 million in prize money, would surely have come with a higher salary, as he would be highly sought after by any institution.

Leonardo’s salary

Dr. Leonard Hofstadter (Johnny Galecki) is a senior experimental physicist at Caltech. He has a doctorate. from Princeton University, which he graduated at the age of 24. He did important work, including classified research for the military on rocket fuel and was part of Stephen Hawking’s expedition to the North Sea. In The Big Bang Theory season 6, Leonard is shortlisted for a permanent position at Caltech, along with Raj and Sheldon, which would have included a pay raise if he got it.

Related: Big Bang Theory Spoiled Penny & Leonard’s Big Ending Story In Season 5

Although on average experimental physicists are paid more than theoretical physicists at the same level, Leonard’s only doctorate compared to Sheldon’s two would likely result in him being paid less than his best friend. Moreover, in Sheldon’s judgment, most of Leonard’s work would be considered “derivative.However, it’s likely that Leonard’s salary will be around $100,000 a year and stay about the same for the entire series.

Penny’s Salary

penny pretends to be on the phone as she teaches sheldon how to act - on the big bang theory

Penny Teller (Kaley Cuoco) is an aspiring actress at the start of The Big Bang Theory. Her acting career never comes down to anything but low-budget horror films, commercials, and the occasional theater gig. His main source of income actually comes from his work at The Cheesecake Factory. Penny waitresses and bartenders at her job, earning minimum wage plus tips. Although tips can vary, Penny’s salary probably wouldn’t have exceeded $28,000 a year, as the California minimum wage in 2007 was $7.50.

However, later in The Big Bang Theory, Penny changes paths and becomes a pharmaceutical representative in her friend Bernadette’s company. She is said to be the third best saleswoman in the company. That’s a big difference in pay compared to his job at the Cheesecake Factory. With this job, Penny would earn around $75,000 a year, or even more than $150,000 if her job factors in performance bonuses.

Raj’s Salary

Raj Big Bang Theory

Dr. Rajesh Koothrappali (Kunal Nayyar) is an astrophysicist at Caltech and also has a Ph.D. He has achieved impressive accomplishments throughout his career, including discovering a planet, being featured as one of the People magazine’s “30 Under 30” and received the Newcomb Medal, worth approximately $25,000. The Big Bang Theory‘s Raj also has family living in India who regularly send him expensive gifts and even pay his rent since they are billionaires.

Related: Young Sheldon Solves The Big Bang Theory’s Biggest Storytelling Problem

At the end of his research, Raj takes a job with Sheldon at The Big Bang Theory in order to prevent his work permit from being canceled and deported. Later, he also got a job as a lecturer at the Griffith Observatory Planetarium. His combined salary would be around $100,000.

Howard’s salary

Simon Helberg as Howard in The Big Bang Theory

Howard Wolowitz (Simon Helberg) is an aerospace engineer at Caltech. Although Sheldon often despises Howard in The Big Bang Theory to have a master’s degree instead of a doctorate, his career was not hampered by this. Howard designed a satellite to orbit Jupiter’s largest moon and piloted the Mars rover. When NASA selects its design for a deep-field space telescope, Howard undergoes astronaut training and then goes into space. His experience as an astronaut opened up other career prospects for him, including writing books and speaking at the planetarium.

Howard’s wife, Bernadette, sometimes reminds him that she earns more than him since she earns a “butt loadmoney as a microbiologist. However, given his accomplishments, Howard likely earns more than the average salary in his field, which is around $85,000. Instead, Howard’s salary in The Big Bang Theory is probably closer to $100,000 per year.

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University of Utah Active Aggressor Prep Thu, 02 Jun 2022 15:04:08 +0000

The University of Utah community mourns with the families, friends and loved ones of the victims of the horrific school shooting in Uvalde, Texas. Senseless acts of violence occur all too frequently in our country, including on college campuses. In the aftermath of this tragedy, many rightly asked how prepared we were to handle a similar situation on our campus.

Campus safety is a top priority and requires a constant and vigilant effort from all of us. To provide insight into our efforts to prepare for the unthinkable, Chief Security Officer Keith Squires answers some of the questions we’ve received from groups across campus.

Campus Security Q&A with Chief Security Officer Keith Squires

Is the University of Utah ready to handle an active shooter on campus?

As the Department of Public Safety charged with protecting students, faculty, staff and visitors to our campus, incidents like what we saw unfold in Texas are stark reminders of the magnitude of our responsibility and the importance of preparing for similar incidents.

When I first took on my current role, and with the high turnover rate in both University Security and University Police, we prioritized preparedness. of an active shooter incident and conducted extensive planning, training and drills at the Park Building through July 2021.

Attendees included representatives from all divisions of U Safety: Police, Campus Safety, U of U Health Safety, Victim Advocates, Emergency Communications (Dispatch), and Emergency Management. Support was provided by the President’s Office and other campus departments.

How did the active fire exercise help the university’s security department prepare for an incident?

Since the Columbine High School shooting in April 1999, training for dealing with an active assailant on campus has evolved and those practices differ from how the situation at Uvalde appears to have unfolded. In an active aggressor situation, one or more suspects open fire randomly or systematically with the intention of injuring others. Usually this is done for the purpose of inflicting grievous bodily harm or death, rather than committing other criminal acts.

We learned a lot from the 2021 exercise on campus which helps us to further develop our response and protection efforts. University police officers continue to receive related training. While it’s impossible to be over-prepared, our staff are highly trained and equipped to coordinate a quick and efficient response should we face a similar situation. Our officers pledge to immediately engage in apprehending armed attackers on campus.

Some important achievements and highlights of the July 2021 exercises:

  • The exercises were the first major exercise on campus to use police body cameras. The images are used to improve officer training and response capabilities.
  • The response time from when officers first entered the building to when the “shooter” was in custody was two minutes.
  • A unique display map with 3D space layout images, called the Common Operating Picture, was developed specifically for the Park Building prior to the exercise and was critical to the effectiveness of the police response. This indoor mapping technology will be used when we perform planning and training exercises in other buildings and spaces.

What do you want students, faculty and staff to know about the police response to these situations?

Responding effectively to an active aggressor situation is a challenge for well-trained police and security personnel. Students, faculty, and staff can play an important role in helping law enforcement save lives as we make critical decisions and put our training into action during a response.

I encourage you to watch the Active Shooter Training video we produced.

Here are a few things to keep in mind:

  • In a high-stakes situation like this, our security personnel are trained to immediately go to the area where gunfire was last heard in order to stop the firing as quickly as possible. Officers may belong to different law enforcement agencies and wear different uniforms or plainclothes and wear bulletproof vests. Coordination between different agencies is essential to the response.
  • Regardless of how the agents appear, stay calm. Do as the officers tell you and don’t be afraid of them. Put down any bags or packages you are carrying and keep your hands visible at all times.
  • If you know where the shooter is or if you know the description of the shooter, tell the officers.
  • The first officers to arrive will go directly to arrest the shooter and will not be able to rescue the wounded. Rescue teams will follow shortly after the first responders enter the area. They will attend to the injured and evacuate everyone to safety.
  • Keep in mind that once you escape to a safer location, the whole area is still a crime scene. The police will generally not let anyone leave until the situation is under control and witnesses have been identified. Until you are released, stay at the assembly point designated by the authorities.

Where have public safety teams conducted active aggressor drills on campus?

Our enhanced 2021 training and drills were held in the park building and became a model to guide other staff working in academic buildings on campus. The Park Building was chosen as the training ground because of its recognized importance and to provide an opportunity for university leaders to get involved.

We wanted to ensure that the training was more than theoretical and that the security personnel treated the exercise as a real incident. We were able to use mapping technology to provide information that will help response teams navigate the building. We have also ensured that lines of communication are in place between University Police, the Salt Lake City Police Department, other agencies that may be involved, and dispatchers. Additionally, we were able to work with administrators and campus staff to help them better understand potential threats and their roles during an incident.

Will other areas of campus have the opportunity to prepare with active aggressor drills?

The more we prepare and practice, the better our response will be if the situation arises. The University Security Department is committed to conducting similar training across campus and we encourage college deans and department heads to make planning an exercise in their buildings a priority in the coming months. Those wishing to schedule our active aggressor assessment and training for their staff and buildings may do so by contacting University Security at 801-213-1090 or

What the end of Roe v. Wade will mean for the next generation of obstetricians Tue, 31 May 2022 15:00:09 +0000

For a long time, Cara Buskmiller has known two things about herself: she wants to give birth, and she is called by her faith to a life of virginity. Growing up in Dallas in the 1990s with six younger siblings, Buskmiller knew a bit about pregnancy and childbirth and had an interest in medicine. But she really decided on midwifery in seventh grade, after visiting an obstetrician’s office with her Girl Scout troop. She saw posters promoting contraception on every wall – something her parents, devout Catholics, had taught her were wrong – and she thought, Oh my God, I have to become an obstetrician to fight. against it!

His second vocation took longer to discern. She tried dating in college, carefully considering all the eligible Catholic men she knew, but no one felt like an obvious match. She flirted with the Catholic Church’s version of a sorority rush for nuns, visiting convents and talking with nuns to see if that should be her path. But it turned out that the answer lay in her own family: her great-aunt Marjorie, a former teacher, was a consecrated virgin, dedicated to chastity and obedience while still being able to lead an independent professional life. Today, Buskmiller isn’t fazed by questions about why a professed virgin would specialize in an area of ​​medicine that relates to sex. “Hasn’t God got a sense of humor? she asked, laughing.

But in 2010, as Buskmiller prepared to apply to medical school, she worried that admissions committees would be skeptical of her beliefs and that her personal objections to abortion and birth control would affect her. practice as an obstetrician. What would program directors think of her volunteer time at a crisis pregnancy center? And, at the time of residency, could she refrain from certain clinical rotations to avoid assisting with abortions?

Buskmiller entered Texas A. & M. School of Medicine, and then did her residency at St. Louis University, a Catholic school. But she felt students like her needed more support. So in her second year as a resident, she started a website called Conscience in Residency, a support network for doctors-in-training who have moral objections to abortion. The site’s slogan is “You are not crazy and you are not alone”. Buskmiller maintains a crowdsourced spreadsheet where residency applicants note which institutions hosted them and which did not. An “abortion mecca, someone commented about Oregon Health & Science University, Portland: “Two faculty members have said directly at medical student conferences that they believe anyone with a conscientious objection to abortion should reconsider whether it is ethical to be an ob-gyn. Another commenter wrote, from Southern Illinois University, Springfield, that the program director “seemed very shocked when I asked not to participate in sterilizations.” Most residents, the commentator added, “are very involved in ‘abortion advocacy.’ ”

Even at a time when Roe v. Wade seems likely to be overthrown, residents who describe themselves as pro-life are counter-cultural in their field. They believe that fetuses are human persons with moral status; When Buskmiller meets a woman even at the very beginning of her pregnancy, she sees two patients, not one. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, or ACOGon the other hand, holds firmly that abortion is a form of health care and supports a patient’s right to terminate a pregnancy prior to fetal viability. Progressive doctors and students argue that access to abortion is not only crucial for the health of their patients, but for a more economically and racially just society. They believe abortion can help keep families out of poverty and protect the lives of black women who, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, are three times more likely than white women to die from causes. related to pregnancy. Meanwhile, residency program directors may balk when encountering students who refuse to participate in abortion education, which involves learning how to care for patients in emergencies as well as before and after. the procedure. Even physicians who do not perform abortions are likely to encounter patients who have had them. Learning more about that experience makes for better practitioners, said Jody Steinauer, professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF).

Yet there is a surprising amount of subtle variation in how members of the medical community think about this issue. All students and young doctors must settle questions about how they wish to practice medicine; Aspiring gynecologists’ views on abortion could determine what training they seek, what specialties they pursue, and where they choose to live. In a post-Roe world, this process of self-sorting would become even more intense: in about half of the country, abortion would be anything but illegal, according to the Guttmacher Institute, a reproductive rights think tank. Resident doctors in those states would likely have to go elsewhere to learn about abortions, just as patients would have to travel to get the procedure. In the other half of the country, the demand for abortions would almost certainly increase, putting pressure on doctors, hospitals and clinics to serve out-of-state patients. For all doctors and interns, regardless of their views, this geographic divide could pose dilemmas, even for anti-abortion students who would likely welcome Roe’s reversal. Simple slogans and tidy categories are useful for politics but not for medicine. “Pro-life people don’t understand why gynecologists talk about the need for abortion until they see a woman dying before their eyes because they’re pregnant,” Buskmiller said. “I think it is possible to be pro-life, despite these situations. But you can’t wear rose-colored glasses and think the situation is easy. It’s not.”

Doctors have not always viewed abortion as a form of health care. The text of Roe v. Wade alludes to the differences between doctors in the early seventies; the Supreme Court assumed that some physicians would oppose abortion on moral or religious grounds. Feminist scholars have noted that judges seem to be just as concerned about the rights of doctors as they are about the rights of women. “The abortion decision in all its aspects is inherently and primarily a medical decision, and the fundamental responsibility for it must rest with the physician,” Judge Harry Blackmun wrote in the court opinion.

Around the time the Court was considering the case, however, about 100 doctors signed a letter advocating a new patient-centered approach to health care. “Physicians will need to realize that abortion has become an essentially social and medical responsibility,” they write. “For the first time . . . doctors will be expected to do an operation simply because the patient asks for it to be done. They were advocating for a new way of thinking about medicine: at least as far as the pregnancy, doctors should not be the decision makers, patients should.

It took many years for medical schools and health institutions to adopt this attitude. In the decades after Roe, “contraception was not considered a worthy training subject for an obstetrician,” Eve Espey, chair of the department of obstetrics and gynecology at the School of Medicine, told me. the University of New Mexico. “Abortion was just a taboo. It was felt to be an activity dominated by older men for profit. Even in 1992, only twelve percent of obstetrics and gynecology residency programs included training in abortion procedures.

In the early 1990s, however, a major shift began, led in part by students. In 1993, while Steinauer was a medical student at UCSF, she founded an organization called Medical Students for Choice, with the goal of expanding access to abortion. Many doctors who had started practicing before Roe, Steinauer told me, performed abortions out of necessity: they had seen women die and were committed to preventing it from happening again. “I would say my generation started thinking about it a little differently,” she said. “It was a bit more activist and advocacy focused.” They did not want a woman’s right to an abortion to be purely theoretical.

The best way to expand access to abortions, Steinauer believed, was to train more doctors to perform them. She and her fellow students began lobbying the Accreditation Council for Higher Medical Education to make elective abortion training mandatory for obstetrics and gynecology residency programs, and in 1995 it became the norm – all residents were required to learn about abortion. But the following year, after Catholic hospitals and other groups refused, Congress passed an amendment to a public health law, prohibiting discrimination against medical training programs that refused to teach medical procedures. abortion. The amendment underscored a growing tension in the field: legally, no one could be forced to perform abortions. But, culturally, pro-choice voices were growing louder in the midwifery world, asserting that abortion is a necessary part of reproductive health care.

In 1999, Susan Thompson Buffett, wife of multi-billionaire Warren Buffett, funded a new initiative called the Ryan Residency Training Program, which provided funding, program assistance, and other resources to residency programs that teach residency procedures. ‘abortion. When I spoke with Steinauer, the principal, she said that as the program became more well known, students who were serious about family planning started asking about Ryan’s rotations in their interviews. of residence: obstetricians. (A sister program, RHEDI, also provides family medicine programs with resources to train residents in abortion.) Now, if a medical student wants to focus on abortion, she can choose from over a hundred programs that follow the model of Ryan, which has been adopted by approximately one-third of obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. She will learn how to counsel patients on birth control and medications that can induce abortion during the first few weeks of pregnancy and at some point in her training she will likely perform dilation and evacuation on patients during their second trimester of pregnancy, a process that involves opening a woman’s cervix and removing the fetus. If the student wants to learn how to perform abortions on patients in complex medical situations, including those far into their pregnancies, she can pursue a fellowship in complex family planning—a specialty that has only been fully accredited. two years ago.

a closer look at the reinhard ernst museum process by maki and associates Sun, 29 May 2022 14:09:49 +0000

Aedes Architecture Forum Unveils Museum Previews

The exhibition “Doing the Reinhard Ernst Museum” at Aedes Architecture Forum in Berlin offers visitors a closer look at the design and construction process of this complex building. Designed by the Japanese architecture firm Maki and Associatesthe museum is scheduled to open in spring 2023 in downtown Wiesbaden and will house Reinhard Ernst’s private collection of abstract art.

‘Making the Museum Reinhard Ernst’ seeks to highlight the progress of the project rather than the finished work. The layout of the exhibition reflects the resulting silhouette of the building which is divided into four quadrants. Thus, organized into four thematic areas – context, form, detail and construction – the exhibition offers visitors a series of sketches, drawings, models, photos and video sequences that reveal the intense work behind the scenes.

“This September, Mr. Maki will be 94 years old. He is fine but of course it is very difficult for him to travel. So I am here in his place. Before I came here, he gave me three pieces of advice. First, he said to me, ‘Michel, you’re going to visit Germany in the spring, you should eat a lot of white asparagus’ — yes, I did! The second piece of advice he said was “it’s really important to pause, anyway, and thank them again for bringing us all together” – so I’d like to do that first. Mr. Maki’s third point was “let the exposition do the talking, and keep your speech and script as short as possible” – so I’m taking that advice as well,” declared Michel Van Ackere on behalf of Maki et Associés during the welcome speech at Aedes.

During the inauguration of the exhibition space, designboom spoke with Michel to learn more about the design process of the museum as well as his the full interview below.

image © designboom

complete header image © Erik-Jan Ouwerkerk

a cultural arts space floats in the heart of Wiesbaden

Supported by the Reinhard & Sonja Ernst Foundation, the project will mark the completion of a 13-year planning process and the long friendship between Reinhard Ernst and renowned architect Fumihiko Maki. For this project, Maki and Associates sought to integrate the structure into its historical context while distinguishing it from its neighbors. To achieve this goal, the final composition was seen as a larger block divided into other quadrants arranged around a glazed courtyard.

Outside, the ground floor is covered with generous amounts of glazing, forming an inviting public space. As for the upper levels, four articulated volumes dressed in white stone are perched above the transparent ground in order to meet the requirements of the program. There, the design team strategically positioned north-facing openings in all of the exhibition halls, also letting diagonal views of the surrounding city spill out inside. As Michel mentioned in the interview, the white granite material used respects the rich stone setting of the area; however, its white color and texture stand out against the surrounding beige stone palette structures.

As for the interior, an extensive multi-level circulation network encircles the square. Thus, the exhibition hall is characterized by traced routes. Nevertheless, everyone can draw their own routes as they meander around the multi-level exhibits. This openness and layering of space – bearing Maki’s design identity – connects the museum interiors to the surrounding city.

take a closer look at the construction process of the reinhard ernst museum by maki and associatesimage © designboom

designboom interviews Michel Van Ackere

designboom (DB): Tell us a bit about your background. How did you end up at Maki and Associates in Tokyo?

Michel Van Ackere (MV): I am originally from the United States, where I studied architectural history. To further complement my theoretical knowledge with the technical aspects specific to architecture, I attended a design school in the United States for three and a half years. During the summer holidays, I decided to do an internship as part of an educational program at a company in Japan — it was an amazing experience! Afterwards, I came back to finish my studies and received a travel grant. I used this money to return to Japan to do research as I was fascinated by certain aspects of the traditional architecture and culture there. So I did! After graduating, I did a research fellowship at Kyoto University. When this search was over, I found out that I wanted to stay there, I felt really comfortable in this country. So I started looking for work. I was lucky enough to find some in Tokyo and later the one I’ve been working in for nearly 26 years. That’s how I ended up at Maki and Associates.

take a closer look at the construction process of the reinhard ernst museum by maki and associates

image © Erik-Jan Ouwerkerk

designboom (DB): Tell us a bit about the museum and its particularities. What sets it apart?

Michel Van Ackere (MV): Each project is completely different. For each project, Mr. Maki examines the particular site, the particular client, the program and the building. In this case, one of the most important aspects was the context of the project. Many buildings in Wiesbaden are made of stone. So for us, one of the first decisions to make was how to work the stone in this context. It would be wrong to give the museum another materiality.

The second key design element that also derives from its context was the location within the city. The structure sits on the edge of downtown; thus, the surroundings are made up of very dense urban connecting blocks. Just behind the museum are individual villas, very typical of the city. It was therefore necessary, to integrate harmoniously with the surrounding masses, to reflect on the scale of these large buildings. Thus, the resulting structure takes the form of a larger block, which can also be perceived as smaller individual blocks – as is repeated in the exhibition hall of Aedes divided into four thematic quadrants.

Due to its massive size, it was rather practical to place the courtyard in the center, allowing plenty of daylight to enter the building. So those factors established the blocky massing that you see in the building, and it lines up with some of the surrounding structures and fits into the context. At the same time, the color of the stone is very different from the rest and makes the museum stand out. It was an aspect that Mr. Ernst liked very much. He wanted to do something that was integrated into the character of the city, but that stood out. This is how we arrived at the white stone.

5 Steps to Claiming Your Ex-Spouse’s Social Security Benefits Without Telling Them Fri, 27 May 2022 15:03:49 +0000
Monkey Business Images /

Editor’s Note: This story originally appeared on The Penny Hoarder.

Love and marriage don’t always last forever. But if your marriage has lasted 10 years or more, the financial benefits can last a lifetime.

This is because you may be able to get Social Security based on your ex-spouse’s benefits instead of your own, even if you were divorced decades ago.

The philosophy is that both spouses often contribute economically during the marriage, even if only one person was employed. The Social security program the rules protect those who have spent most of their working years raising a family or playing a supporting role to their spouse and may not have Pension saving of their own.

Here’s how the rules work and what steps you need to take to apply for benefits through an ex-spouse.

Social security rules after divorce

social security and money
JJ Gouin /

The maximum benefit you can get based on a spouse’s record – whether you are currently married or divorced – is 50% of full retirement age benefit to. Full retirement age is the age at which you are entitled to 100% of your benefits. It’s 66 or 67, depending on your date of birth.

If your ex-spouse predeceases you, you will generally be eligible to receive survivors benefits up to 100% of the monthly payment that person was receiving, just as you could if a current spouse died.

People with long work experience will generally be entitled to a larger benefit based on their own income rather than that of a spouse. Social Security will give you the biggest benefit, but not both.

If you are entitled to more money through your ex-spouse, they will technically give you any benefit you earned based on your record. Then they will use your ex’s file to make up the difference.

Are you looking to get revenge on an ex-spouse by claiming his social security? Pass. Your decision will not affect their benefits, or their current spouse if they have remarried. If they’ve been married multiple times, all of their exes are allowed to claim on their file.

Sometimes a divorce settlement will state that one spouse cannot collect Social Security based on the other person’s record. Such stipulations are totally absurd. The Social Security Administration says they are “worthless and never enforced.”

Since your Social Security checks won’t affect your ex in any way, the only reason to try to claim his benefits is if you think you can get more money. If you suspect that their file maximize your social securityFollow these steps.

1. Make sure you can answer “yes” to these questions

woman thinking planning
Motortion Films /

To qualify for Social Security benefits from an ex, you must be able to answer “yes” to these four questions.

  • Have you been married for 10 years or more? If your marriage lasted less than 10 years, you will not be entitled to ex benefits. You must also be divorced for at least two years before you can start receiving checks based on your ex-spouse’s background, unless that person has already started receiving benefits.
  • Are you at least 62 years old? This is the minimum age to start Social Security retirement benefits, regardless of which record you use. However, you may qualify regardless of your age if you are caring for your ex’s child who is under 16 or disabled. If your ex-spouse is deceased, you may be eligible for survivor benefits at age 60 or at age 50 if you are disabled.
  • Are you still single? If you are currently married, you can only apply on your own record or on your current spouse’s record. You will also only be eligible for 50% of that spouse’s full benefit. What if you’ve been married and divorced multiple times? Social Security will use the record of the ex-spouse that gives you the greatest benefit. Remember though that only marriages that lasted 10 years or more will count.
  • Does your ex qualify for benefits? In addition to the minimum age of 62, Social Security requires at least 40 work credits, equivalent to 10 years of full-time work, to start benefits. If your ex does not meet these criteria, you have no compensation to claim. Note that they do not need to receive benefits. They just have to be eligible.

2. Gather your ex’s information

Senior reading his social security statement
Yevgeny Atamanenko /

You’re going to need information to prove to Social Security that you’re eligible for your ex’s benefits. Be prepared to provide your marriage license and divorce decree.

Social Security will also need to locate your ex’s file. It will be easier if you still have their social security number. If you no longer have it, Social Security may be able to find his file if you can provide the date of birth of the ex-spouse, his place of birth and the names of his parents.

3. Resist the urge to tell your ex.

Quiet businessman
Aaron Amat /

Remember: your decision to apply for more Social Security on your ex’s case doesn’t affect him in any way. So there is absolutely no reason to contact them about it. You do not need their consent to get benefits based on their record. Social Security will not contact them about your claim.

4. Ask Social Security whose record gives you the best benefit

Image Point FR /

Now take the information you gathered about your ex to Social Security to determine which case will give you the most benefit. You can call the Social Security Administration at 800-772-1213 or visit your local office. An appointment is not required, but making one can reduce your wait time.

5. Delay as long as possible (but not too long)

Senior woman with eyes closed and hands on her heart. /

The sooner you collect benefits, the lower your monthly checks will be, regardless of which file you apply for. The 50% you can claim from an ex-spouse’s background is the maximum you’ll get if you wait until the full retirement age of 66 or 67. For each year before that date, you permanently reduce your benefits by 6.66%. If you apply at age 62, you will only be entitled to 32.5% of your ex’s benefit.

Don’t wait too long, though. When you collect benefits on your own file, you get an additional 8% for each year you delay full retirement age until your benefits reach a maximum of 70 years. But when you receive spousal benefits, you don’t earn deferred retirement credits. . You won’t get any extra money if you’re past full retirement age, so there’s no point in delaying any further.

A final note: In the past, a common Social Security strategy was to claim as soon as possible based on a current or former spouse’s record, then move to your own larger benefit later. But the rules changed under a 2015 law called the Bipartisan Budget Law. This is now only an option if you were born on or before January 2, 1954.

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Smaller than a chip, the robot can walk, bend, twist, turn and jump Wed, 25 May 2022 23:02:06 +0000 Northwestern University engineers have developed the smallest remote-controlled walking robot ever – and it comes in the form of an adorable little peekytoe crab.

At just half a millimeter wide, the tiny crabs can bend, twist, crawl, walk, spin and even jump. The researchers also developed millimeter-sized robots resembling caterpillars, crickets and beetles. Although the research is exploratory at this stage, the researchers believe their technology could bring the field closer to achieving micro-robots that can perform practical tasks in tightly confined spaces.

The research will be published Wednesday, May 25 in the journal Scientific robotics. Last September, the same team demonstrated a winged microchip that was the smallest flying structure ever made by man.

“Robotics is an exciting field of research, and the development of microscale robots is a fun topic for academic exploration,” said John A. Rogers, who led the experimental work. “You could imagine micro-robots as agents for repairing or assembling small structures or machinery in industry or as surgical assistants for clearing clogged arteries, stopping internal bleeding, or removing cancerous tumors – all in minimally invasive procedures.

“Our technology allows for a variety of controlled movement modalities and can walk at an average speed of half its body length per second,” added Yonggang Huang, who led the theoretical work. “It’s very difficult to achieve at such small scales for ground robots.”

A pioneer in bioelectronics, Rogers holds the Louis Simpson and Kimberly Querrey Chair in Materials Science and Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, and Neurological Surgery at Northwestern’s McCormick School of Engineering and Feinberg School of Medicine and Director of the Querrey Simpson Institute for Bioelectronics (QSIB). Huang is the Jan and Marcia Achenbach Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Civil and Environmental Engineering at McCormick and a key member of QSIB.

Smaller than a chip, the crab is not powered by complex hardware, hydraulics or electricity. Instead, his power resides in the elastic resilience of his body. To build the robot, the researchers used a shape-memory alloy that changes to its “memorized” shape when heated. In this case, the researchers used a scanned laser beam to quickly heat the robot at various targeted locations on its body. A thin layer of glass elastically returns this corresponding part of the structure to its deformed shape upon cooling.

As the robot moves from one phase to another – deformed to the memorized shape and back again – it creates locomotion. Not only does the laser remotely control the robot to activate it, but the scanning direction of the laser also determines the walking direction of the robot. A swipe from left to right, for example, makes the robot move from right to left.

“Because these structures are so tiny, the cooling rate is very fast,” Rogers explained. “In fact, reducing the size of these robots allows them to operate faster.”

To make such a small creature, Rogers and Huang turned to a technique they introduced eight years ago – a pop-up assembly method inspired by a children’s pop-up book.

First, the team fabricated precursors to the walking crab structures in flat and planar geometries. Then they glued these precursors onto a slightly stretched rubber substrate. When the stretched substrate is released, a controlled buckling process occurs which causes the crab to “pop” into precisely defined three-dimensional shapes.

With this manufacturing method, the Northwestern team was able to develop robots of different shapes and sizes. So why a peekytoe crab? We can thank the students of Rogers and Huang for that.

“With these assembly techniques and material concepts, we can build walking robots with almost any size or 3D shape,” Rogers said. “But the students felt inspired and amused by the sideways crawling movements of the tiny crabs. It was a creative quirk.”


Source of the story:

Materials provided by Northwestern University. Original written by Amanda Morris. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.